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Jeans by greater a

Department of theSalud-Relacionada library of the otorrinolaringología


Function of the ear

The ear is divided in three portions; internal the external, heard ear average and oido. Each part makes an important function in the hearing and/or the maintenance of the balance.

The acoustic waves happen through the ear channel of the external ear and vibrate the membrane tympanic (eardrum). The membrane tympanic separates the external and average ear. There are three small bones of hearing (hammer or malleus, anvil or incus, stirrup or stirrup) in the average ear that act as transforming to transmit the energy of healthy vibrations to the liquids of the internal oido one. The internal oido one (labyrinth) contains two fluid systems, a suspended interior the other, separated by a fine membrane. This system contains a balanced delicate liquid that bathes the conclusions of nerve responsible for the hearing and the balance. The nerve conclusions generate the electrical impulses in the center of the hearing (cóclea) that then are transmitted through the nerve of the hearing to the brain where they are interpreted like sound. Movement of the liquid in the portion of the balance of the results of the internal oido one (semicircular lobby and channels) in the electrical impulses that are sent through the nerve of the balance to the brain where interprets like movement. The internal oido one detects position, the rotation, the acceleration and the deceleration.

How the balance stays

The balance is the capacity to maintain its balance and is maintained by the interaction and the coordination of the impulses received from the internal oido one, the visual system and the system proprioceptive.

The internal oido one, according to the discussed thing previously, is a fluid system. Movement of the fluid results in the electrical impulses that are sent through the nerve of the balance to the brain where interprets like movement.

The vision is responsible to give the exact information on its environs. Esteem that 90% of information received by the brain are through the eyes. If you watch around and everything is vertical, you it feels well. Nevertheless, if you are in funhouse where he is everything in an inclination, you can even feel been annoying if you still are being stopped.

The system proprioceptive is made up of muscles, the joints and the sinews in the arms and the legs and is responsible to give the information to the brain with respect to the position of the movement and the body. This system allows him to walks under passages without watching where to put its feet.

The vertigos are a symptom, not a disease. They are defined as a disorientation in space, a sense of unsteadiness, a sensation of the movement within the head as giddiness, the sensation of swimming, I am annoying or well-known girante sensation like true vertigo. The vertigos can be from disturbances in the internal oido one, the eyes of the brain, neck, the muscles and the joints, or a combination of these systems. Since the mechanism of the balance that maintains is so complex, it is in many cases impossible to discover the exact cause of the vertigos.

Evaluation of the vertigos

To evaluate the symptom of the vertigos a complete medical file, audiogram (test of the hearing) and electronystagmogram (ENGLISH or test of the balance) are generally necessary. In some cases, an exploration of the CAT (x-ray) and the work of the blood also are needed.

The medical file is perhaps the most important part of the evaluation. The doctor needs to know what he feels like the patient like when he is navigated, the duration of symptoms, what triggers or releases the symptoms and if the auditory symptoms (loss of ear, pressure of the ear or humming) are present.

An audiogram documents the present level of the hearing. The ENGLISH gives the objective information as far as how the mechanism of the balance of the internal oido one is working. An exploration of the CAT is obtained when the loss of ear of the nerve is worse in an ear to eliminate the possibility of a benign tumor in the nerve of the hearing. The blood analyses, such as blood sugar, body fats (cholesterol and triglycerides), thyroid, a potential infection or process autoinmune (a process of the blood in which the internal oido one makes the antibodies against the ear) can be requested. These abnormalitys of the blood can give rise to a sensation of the vertigos and with the appropriate treatment the sensation of the vertigos can diminish.

Vertigos Of The Internal Oido

Our sense of the balance comes from three sources; the eye, the internal oido one, and felt cinestésicos. When a source differs with others we detected vertigos. Any oido disturbance in internal or the its central connections can cause a sensation of the vertigos with or without auditory symptoms (loss of ear or humming). If no other cause can be found, the internal oido one often thinks to be the source of the problem.

The internal oido one produces generally symptoms of a well-known girante sensation like vertigo or sensation of the imbalance. The symptoms are generally episódicos, that is to say, they come and they go. Less they produce often a constant sensation of the vertigos. The vertigos often are associated to the loss of ear, the pressure and the humming (main noise) of the ear.

What follows is a discussion of the most common forms of vertigos caused by the ear.

Disease De Meniere

See the leaf of the information in the disease of Meniere.

Benign Positional Vertigo

This one is one of the most common forms of vertigos caused by the internal oido one. The symptoms are created to be caused by the fragmentation of a small deposit of calcium (otolith) in the internal oido one. These fragments float freely in the liquid of the internal oido one until a change of the gravity makes affect the nerve conclusions that cause a sensation of the vertigos. This can happen spontaneously, to follow a disease, or result of the main trauma viral.

The symptoms were associated to this condition are a sensation or I am annoying that it rotated, associate sometimes to nausea, that are brought ignition by the changes in the position of the head and the body. The symptoms are of the short duration, second lasting ones to the minutes. The ear towards the floor when the symptoms happen is generally the ear that takes offense. There are auditory symptoms (loss of ear, pressure of the ear or humming) no associated to this condition.

This condition is called benign because one is same-limited, that is to say, will improve in his the own one. The recovery takes several weeks or months, once in a while until a year.

The treatment is only for the symptomatic relevación using medications suppressant vestibulares such as Antivert or valium. It is rarely the required surgery.

Vertigos due to the aging

Whereas a person grows older, certain changes happen normally, for example a change in color of the hair and a diminution of the capacity to hear. Hardly because these changes happen, there are also changes that happen in the systems that are necessary to maintain the balance.

What follows is a discussion of the changes that happen, the symptoms one can experience and the suggestions to help to reduce to the minimum these symptoms. Following these suggestions, a examinación can sometimes be avoided. Although the examinaciones provide La Paz of the mind, can be expensive.

Changes That affect the Balance

Hardly because the portion hearing of the internal oido one loses its sensitivity to sound giving by result a loss of ear, the portion of the balance can lose its sensitivity to the rotation, the acceleration and the deceleration. This change consists of a diminution of the impulses that originate in the internal oido one or a diminution of the capacity of the brain to interpret these impulses; but in any case, the brain interprets east change like vertigos.

An additional symptom is a gradual diminution of the Vista of the eye and the guarded fatigue of the vision or the eye when doing close the work. This is caused by a diminution of the elasticity of the lens of the eye and is correctable using bifocals. Other conditions, such as glaucoma or cataracts can also cause a diminution of the vision and such way to diminish the amount of information that the brain receives.

Finally, proprioceptive (conclusions of nerve in muscles, the sinews and the joints in the arms and the legs) due to the aging are changes in the system. It can have exaggerated curvatures of the spine or a diminution of the generalized muscular weakness that causes total of the muscle. The conditions such as diabetes or arthritis can cause a diminution of the sensation in the extremities, the information so the brain diminishes receives with respect the position and to the movement of the body.

Symptoms of the vertigos due to the aging

  1. You can notice I am annoying, a sensation that rotate, giddiness, wooziness or unsteadiness that happens quickly when giving return or changing to positions, when excessive bending and returning to a vertical position or when watching for above or down. These symptoms last by a short time.
  2. You can notice a tendency to shake yourself or to turn of side to side when walking.

How to reduce to the minimum symptoms

There are no medications that will alleviate symptoms relative to the age, but are ways to help to reduce them to the minimum. The following ones are suggestions that we give our patients who have vertigos due to the aging.

  1. When rising in the morning, it siéntese in the edge of the bed by several minutes before trying to be unemployed and to walk.
  2. Change the positions or you give return slowly. Close have something to maintain on the aid become stabilized.
  3. Make that watching for above or down, or the excessive flexion and returning to a vertical position can cause unsteadiness and have something close to maintain on.
  4. Never long walk in the darkness. When rising at night, it always ignites a shining light. At night use a light in the bathroom.
  5. Use to a cane, a cane 4-prong or walker if you have more severe problems when walking. Remember, you are not inclining in these devices, but they are increasing really the amount of information received through the extremities.
  6. Keep other medical conditions, such as diabetes, glaucoma, arterial tension high or arthritis under control taking its medication and /or that follow the diet prescribed.

Groups De Ayuda

There is a chronic group of aid of the disease of the ear located in the area of the meter. If you wanted to speak with somebody you you can call 339-2120.

Clinic ENT Of the One in charge Of the Nurse of the Millimeter


Foundation Of the Clinic Of Cleveland, "Vertigos Of the Internal Oido"

Bellanger, Juan. "diseases of the nose, the throat, the ear, the head and the neck", 1985.

Paparella and Shumrick, "otorrinolaringología", volume two - heard. 1973

Manual of Merck of the diagnosis and the therapy. Catorcena Edition

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Updated: Of May the 19 of 1997 close Jeans by greater a and Jeans by greater a   (university of Minnesota)
URL:   (department  of the library of the otorrinolaringología)
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